AbstractOn February 28, 2023, Bunshindo Publishing Corporation published a book co-authored by Professor Yumiko Nakanishi of the Graduate School of Law, Hitotsubashi University, titled The European Green Deal and the Recovery of the EU Economy. The European Green Deal has gained attention within the EU as a sustainable governance initiative, and the book provides an overview of the initiative and its underlying structure. In Chapter 2, titled "Legal Foundations of the European Green Deal," Professor Nakanishi examines the European Green Deal through the lens of European Climate Law. Professor Nakanishi evaluates European Climate Law positively, stating that it was "adopted in the form of the most rigorous and unified rules." Further, she explains that three measures are necessary for its implementation: (1) binding target setting, (2) phased target setting with specific deadlines, and (3) stipulation of efforts to achieve the goals through progress assessment. Lastly, she points out the need for fundamental change in the current situation since it does not recognize natural rights.
AbstractOn May 23, 2023, The Diplomat published an article authored by Professor Nobumasa Akiyama, Dean of the School of International and Public Policy, Professor at the Graduate School of Law, and a GGR Researcher, titled “The Hiroshima G7 Summit and Nuclear Disarmament: Essential talks were held, but more is now needed.“ Professor Akiyama discusses the position of the G-7 Leaders’ Hiroshima Vision for Nuclear Disarmament" presented at the G7 Hiroshima Summit and the significance of the G7 leaders standing in the A-bombed city. Professor Akiyama evaluated the significance of holding the summit in Hiroshima, given that Prime Minister Kishida has made nuclear disarmament his life work. The professor also noted that the "Hiroshima Vision" puts nuclear disarmament at the forefront even amidst the difficult international environment and that it not only conforms to existing frameworks but also sets out new initiatives regarding transparency, for instance. Finally, the professor emphasized the role of the G7 in global governance and a world without nuclear weapons and said that the international community should use this summit as a springboard to implement more substantial measures.
Hiroshima Vision for G7 Nuclear Disarmament: Respect for Dialogue among Different Stance – Nobumasa Akiyama, Professor, Hitotsubashi University [in Japanese]
AbstractOn May 21, 2023, Tokyo Shimbun introduced an article that interviewed Professor Nobumasa Akiyama, Dean of School of International and Public Policy, Professor at Graduate School of Law, and GGR Researcher, titled “Hiroshima Vision for G7 Nuclear Disarmament: Respect for Dialogue among Different Stance - Nobumasa Akiyama, Professor, Hitotsubashi University.“ The article outlines the discussions on nuclear disarmament at the G7 Hiroshima Summit. Professor Akiyama explains that it is important that not only the seven G7 states, but also invited states and international organizations jointly demonstrate their stance on nuclear disarmament. The professor also pointed out the significance of G7 leaders acknowledging the reality of nuclear exposure amid the current security environment. Finally, the professor said that the Leaders' Statement and the Hiroshima Vision confirmed the adherence to Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons regime, and argued that, while further cooperative measures are required, respecting the forum for dialogue among countries with different positions is the way to approach a world without nuclear weapons.
AbstractOn May 13, 2023, GGR assistant and Chilean international analyst Sascha Hannig Nuñez published an article titled “Chinese Technology, Opportunity or Crisis?（in Spanish）” in the Argentine daily La Nacion. Referring to examples from other regions, Hannig Nuñez discussed the collaboration between countries in the Latin American region and Chinese tech corporations. First, it was noted that one of the distinguishing characteristics of Chinese companies is that they are obligated to provide the Chinese Communist Party（CCP）with the information they collect, whether it was collected inside or outside of China. She explained that doubts about the information security aspect have led to a series of cases in which Huawei and ZTE have been banned from national networks by a number of countries such as Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. On the other hand, she argued that discussions on which country’s products should be introduced are ongoing in the Latin American region. Given that Chinese companies have strength in price and service and that the CCP has grown its influence in the region, the possibility of cooperation between Chinese companies and regional governments is not insignificant. She emphasized the need for discussions at the regional framework level, pointing out that decisions associated with the entry of Chinese tech companies made in a single country affect the entire region.
World Without Nuclear Weapons, However Long It May Take: Expectations of Japanese Researcher for the Hiroshima Summit [in Japanese]
AbstractOn May 18, 2023, Asahi Shimbun introduced an article that interviewed Professor Nobumasa Akiyama, Dean of School of International and Public Policy, Professor at Graduate School of Law, and GGR Researcher, titled “World Without Nuclear Weapons, However Long It May Take: Expectations of Japanese Researcher for the Hiroshima Summit.“ In this article, Professor Akiyama discussed what the G7 should voice toward "a world without nuclear weapons.” First, Professor Akiyama argued that, based on rising tensions among the major powers and in the region, there will probably be virtually no linear progress toward “a world without nuclear weapons.” The professor then stated that building a track record of nuclear weapons not being ultimately used under any circumstances is important for achieving “a world without nuclear weapons,” even though it may seem like a slow and roundabout way to go. The professor stressed the importance of bridging the gap in perceptions of nuclear weapons due to the different geopolitical risks that countries face to strengthen cooperation between emerging and developing countries in the nuclear field. In addition, regarding China's nuclear weapons, the professor explained that the lack of disclosure of nuclear-related information has created a major transparency problem.
AbstractOn March 20, 2023, Sascha Hannig Nuñez, GGR assistant and international analyst published an article "Dystopia: Hybrids of Reality (original title: Distopías híbridas de realidad)" in the Spanish literature critic journal, Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos. Hannig Nunez discusses the concept of dystopia, referring to philosophical, political and literary sources, as a starting point for her discussion of dystopia, which crosses boundaries such as study fields, eras, and geography. First, Ms. Hannig Nunez finds commonalities with T. More's concept of utopia and dystopia’s ideological origin as coined by J. S. Mill. She also argues that the experience of control in authoritarian regimes has been reflected in dystopian works, and finds this characteristic from Y. Zamyatin under the Soviet Union to J. Baradit's in the current Chile, South America. Ms. Hannig Nunez points out that technological developments have also developed means of repression, as reflected, for example, in the literature of Kazuo Ishiguro, which incorporates cloning technology. Finally, she noted that parallels to an Orwellian world can be seen in today's reality, and warned that the banal use of the word dystopia to describe mundane situations can lead to the loss of its striking and daring meaning.
Emerging Strategic Risks in the Asia-Pacific and the Impact on the Nuclear Non-proliferation Regime: The Japanese Perspective
AbstractOn March 6, 2023, the Asia-Pacific Leadership Network（ALPN）published the report “Emerging strategic risks in the Asia-Pacific and the impact on the nuclear non-proliferation regime: The Japanese perspective,” written by Professor Nobumasa Akiyama, dean of Hitotsubashi University School of International and Public Policy and GGR researcher. ALPN is a network of former and currently serving political, diplomatic, and military leaders, as well as scholars and opinion leaders based in the Asia-Pacific region. Their ultimate aim is to eliminate the usage of nuclear weapons and they do so by informing and influencing public opinion to take into consideration the threat that nuclear weapons pose to this world. Professor Akiyama, as a member of the ALPN, wrote this report with the purpose of explaining the current nuclear situation in the Asia-Pacific from the perspective of Japan.
AbstractOn March 20, 2023, Professor Hitomi Takemura, Professor and GGR Research Fellow at Hitotsubashi University Graduate School of Law, published an article entitled “The Situation of Ukraine and the International Criminal Court” in Volume 29 of Kyushu International University Law Journal. Professor Takemura first pointed out that although neither Ukraine nor Russia are States Parties to the International Criminal Court (ICC) Statute, the former accepted its jurisdiction previously and the 43 signatories referred the situation on to ICC, the Office of the Prosecutor was able to open an investigation. However, the professor argued that ICC has limitations in terms of the principle of complementarity, personal jurisdiction, jurisdiction ratione materiae, and its effectiveness. In addition, the professor argued that while the difficulty of scrutinizing evidence makes the finding of genocide crimes difficult, international cooperation frameworks are facilitated to collect evidence. The Professor also pointed out the problem of the fulfillment of states' obligations regarding the Genocide Convention is nowadays dealt with by the simultaneous pendencies of a dispute both with the International Court of Justice and the ICC. Finally, based on the principle of complementarity, the professor argues that a long-term perspective is necessary to assess ICC’s effectiveness and efficiency, especially because its States Parties bear the primary responsibility to investigate and prosecute crimes under international law in order to terminate the culture of impunity.
G7 Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in Karuizawa – Hear the Voices of Citizens under Oppression [in Japanese]
AbstractOn April 16, 2023, Shinano Mainichi Shimbun introduced an article of Dr. Maiko Ichihara, GGR researcher and professor of the Graduate School of Law at Hitotsubashi University, titled “G7 Foreign Ministers' Meeting in Karuizawa - Hear the Voices of Citizens under Oppression.” Looking ahead to the G7 Foreign Ministers' Meeting to be held in mid-April and the G7 Summit to follow, Professor Ichihara outlined the following policies that the Japanese government should pursue to lead the international community as the G7 chair country. First, the professor stressed the importance of "freedom" and "rule of law," which are centered on the Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) new plan announced on March 20, 2023, and that "respect for the historical and cultural diversity of each country" is essential to realize this vision. On the other hand, Professor Ichihara emphasized that respect for the culture means not merely accepting the claims of the government, but also listening to the voices of the citizens of the country. To this end, the professor suggested that the Japanese government should collaborate with private actors, and working with the Sunnylands Initiative, launched by related actors, is an effective way to achieve this.
AbstractIn February 2023, Professor Makoto Tajimi, GGR researcher and a professor at the Graduate School of Law of Hitotsubashi University, published an article entitled “From the Perspective of Chinese Law: What is ‘Chinese-Style Rule of Law’?” (in Japanese) in Volume 83 of the journal of Japan Society of Comparative Law. Professor Tajimi defined the Hong Kong national security law as the "Chineseization of Hong Kong" and discussed the Chinese-style rule of law (中国式法治) and the Chinese-style democracy (中国式民主). Professor explained that the rule of law is placed under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and aims to realize CCP's policy objectives. In addition, the Professor argued that Chinese democracy emphasizes unification and solidarity, and democracy and the party is positioned as integrated parts with one another. Professor Tajimi stated that the rule of law and democracy of the Chinese style are considerably different from those liberal democracy assumes. The Professor also pointed out that occurrences such as the concentration of power in the "new era" after the inauguration of Xi Jinping and the recent zero-corona policy do not indicate a change in the abovementioned concepts. Rather, the Professor argued, they are proof that the Chinese-style rule of law under the leadership of the CCP and the Chinese style of democracy, which aims to promote the interests of the whole under the CCP, are being strengthened and carried through.